The history and future of rifles in warfare

Andrew Barnett armed with the M14 enhanced battle rifle outside an Afghan border police observation point in Kunar province, Afghanistan U.

The history and future of rifles in warfare

As the soldiers tried to adapt, they discovered that the weapons they had been issued were sometimes not the best suited to this new and hellish environment. Many times adaptations were made to obsolete weapons of types ranging from Medieval times to the Napoleonic wars.

Mills Bombs were in use into the s. Source Grenades The Germans had closely observed the Russo-Japanese War of and took note that mortars and grenades, considered militarily obsolete back then, were used to great effect against the entrenched enemy, with grenadiers hurling their grenades into enemy trenches so that supporting infantry could storm the trenches and mop up any survivors.

French Catapult French soldiers using a grenade catapult. Source The French and Russians, though not as prepared, also envisioned laying siege to German fortresses and so also had grenades. The only grenade available was the Mark I, which had an explosive canister with a percussion fuse attached to a inch handle with streamers to ensure it landed canister-down and thus detonate, hopefully in the enemy trench.

The problem was that, once the pin was pulled, it was armed and would explode as soon as it struck something.

The history and future of rifles in warfare

Too many times, in the confined space of a trench, that something was the rear wall of their own trench. Thus, many Tommies British soldiers distrusted the Mark I and engineers came up with an interim solution-- a grenade that could be whipped up at the front.

Right the specially manufactured Double Cylinder Hand Grenade, based on the jam tin grenade. Gun-cotton or dynamite was placed in the smaller tin, which was placed inside the larger tin.

Then pieces of metal, acting as shrapnel, were placed in the larger tin around the smaller. A fuse, with a burn rate of about 1. When used, the fuse would be lit, perhaps by cigarette, and the jam-tin thrown, exploding whenever the fuse reached the explosive. British armament companies, meanwhile, were feverishly working on real grenades, but the jam-tin filled the gap until they appeared at the front.

Stokes Mortar Photograph of British troops loading Stokes mortar, in a sandbagged emplacement. Clothing and headgear indicates somewhere in the Middle East.

Mortars were generally portable and could fire unexposed from the bottom of a trench, dropping their shells into the enemy trenches with a little luck. Mortars are essentially hollow tubes angled greater than 45 degrees. Neither the French or the British had mortars at the start of the war.

The French actually scrounged up Napoleonic-era mortars more than a century old until modern mortars became available. Both the British and the French also used catapults to hurl grenades into enemy trenches until mortars became available. The British produced the No. It was fired by pulling a lanyard, but sometimes premature explosions resulted.

Periscope Rifle Australian using a periscope rifle at Gallipoli, Source Rifles Both the British and Germans brought in elephant guns from their African colonies to penetrate armor plate. German snipers, especially, used armor shields, which protected them from normal rifle fire. By the end ofsnipers were the scourge of the trenches.

Many were killed that way. The periscope rifle was created to allow the shooter to fire his rifle without exposing his head. A wooden frame was constructed such that it would securely hold the rifle above the shooter with the top of the periscope aligned with the gun-sites, allowing the soldier to aim by looking through the bottom part of the periscope.

To fire the rifle, a string was pulled.

TIMELINE - The Evolution of Weapons

Though not as effective as when aimed normally, it was still very useful. German Anti-Tank Rifle They only produced 20 tanks to the Allies nearly 7, Their long rifles, even longer with bayonets attached, were ill-suited in the confines of the trenches, and usually only officers had pistols.

Many learned to improvise and weapons that would have been familiar to Medieval soldiers were utilized during the close combat in the trenches. Such trench raiding weapons as trench knives, trench clubs often-times weighted with lead and studded with nailspickaxe handles, hatchets, brass knuckles, entrenching tools, spades and maces were all used to horrific effect on both sides.

Model 97 Trench Gun showing bayonet and sling. Source The Americans did manage to bring a gun to the melee knife fight. Nothing came of the threat when the Americans said they would execute Germans captured with flamethrowers or saw-bladed bayonets.War photography Military Photos Military History Sniper Rifles Modern Warfare Armed Forces Soviet Union SOVIET ARMY Battle Forward A Russian sniper takes aim with the help of a tank commander during the First Battle of Grozny.

Weapons have changed history and aided in the rise and fall of civilizations. For example, gunpowder, a Chinese invention, led to the development of cannons and guns—revolutionizing warfare in the Middle Ages and beyond.

Much of the research for this video came from the book A History of the World in Weapons. Nov 07,  · Hey guys here's a video of all the gold and diamond versions of the assault rifles in call of duty infinite warfare, this did take a whole lot of grinding to get so it would be appreciated if you.

How it all began

May 29,  · World War 1 History: Adapting Weapons to Trench Warfare. Updated on September 19, warts and all. We must look to the past to understand the present and confront the future. Contact Author. the rifle, a string was pulled.

Though not as effective as when aimed normally, it was still very useful. Periscope rifles were Reviews: 6.

The Russo-Japanese War

Get your copy of Warfare History Network’s FREE Special rifle designs, respectively, throughout the war. In the end, the Japanese rifles were rugged and reliable and earned the admiration of the Japanese infantryman under most circumstances.

which was greater in length than either the future M-1 Garand or Model Springfield rifle. His approval led to the purchase of , Spencer repeating carbines and rifles (of , made), and the Spencer became the principal repeating gun of the Civil War.

The Future of Warfare | Opinion | OZY

- Breech loaded guns in common use. - American Civil War. Both breech and muzzle loaded guns used. - The Gatling Gun is invented.

Future Weapons - Wikipedia