In those days, the trip to Europe took many weeks, but his arrival in the Dutch port was not the end of his long journey. This is where the timing of the new World Bank funds earmarked for Ethiopia is suspicious.
Completely different meanings even occur in different branches of physiology, e. As a student, it is easy to despair!
But the meanings of words are very precise in science: This glossary is for browsing in, testing yourself, and learning about words that catch your eye.
Stop and read wherever you may have doubts or interest. But it is very selective. You need both an English dictionary and a scientific or medical dictionary too. This glossary concentrates on words that often cause confusion, especially in the basic sciences physics, chemistry and mathematics that are the foundation of physiology.
You are often expected in exams to explain the meanings of words: Click or email to a. As an aid to memory: Note that all parts of a rotating object are accelerating except on the axiseven if the rotation is steady: Acceleration is detected in man largely by the labyrinths.
Acclimation is sometimes used specifically to mean adaptation to a single changed factor as under laboratory conditions. Used in several senses: Attenuation or absence of a response when a stimulus is applied slowly e. NB this is distinct from adaptation, but is often seen in the same systems.
Adjustment of focus of the eye. Cumulative toxins are ones that are absorbed but not excreted, for which it is the total dose over a prolonged period that matters rather than the level of exposure at any one time.
Accuracy is limited firstly by the ability of a measuring system to distinguish different conditions resolution and secondly by its ability to relate the conditions correctly to a standard calibration.
The two considerations must not be confused. A high resolution instrument giving stable readings and sensitive to small changes may nevertheless be completely inaccurate if not adequately calibrated.
Accuracy cannot usually be greater than the resolution of a measurement, except in special circumstances e. An acidotic condition may be capable of being restored to normal acid-base balance by increasing respiratory ventilation to reduce the CO2 content of the body respiratory acidosisor it may require retention or injection of HCO3- metabolic acidosis.
Disturbances are lessened in the short term by numerous pH buffer systems. Influences affecting blood pH are altered absorption, metabolism and respiration, and disturbances affecting the control systems.
Action potentials occur spontaneously or as all-or-none or frequency coded reactions to stimulation. Sodium spikes are brief ca. A compound action potential is an extracellular recording of the combined effect of action potentials in many cells.
A catalyst reduces the activation energy. This requires energy, and can occur by linkage of carrier mediated transport to a process providing energy, such as the hydrolysis of ATP or the downhill movement of another substance.
The state of doing something: In chemistry a parameter similar to concentration, that determines the rate at which reactions take place. Visual acuity depends on light level, and is highest at the fovea. It is usually measured clinically by the ability to discriminate letters on a Snellen Chart: Somatosensory acuity varies markedly over the body surface and may be measured by the separation required to identify that the skin is being touched at two points.
AC-coupling introduces distortion of signals that have frequency components around or below the cut-off frequency. Distinguish carefully from both accommodation and habituation.
Light and dark adaptation are the processes of adjustment of the eye to different light levels whether fast or slowly changing. Acts at both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, and mimics some of the effects of sympathetic nerve activation.In this application of the Fick principle, the entry rate of oxygen into pulmonary circulation by the route that is blood-borne, equals the cardiac output which is multiplied by the (systemic) mixed venous oxygen content (Venous O2 ‘ The entry route which is auxiliary in .
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This is the Fick’s first law of diffusion. 6.
Now, let’s consider diffusion in a three-dimensional space, i.e., random walk of an atom: As defined on page 4.
Question 1 of 85 / Points The multiple functions of the muscular system are performed by _____type(s) of muscle: A.2 B.3 C.4 D.1 Question 2 of. Feb 04, · CARDIAC OUTPUT LONG ESSAY Define cardiac output and cardiac index. Explain Fick”s principle in measurement of cardiac output.
What is the normal cardiac output? Describe the various methods used for determining it. Write a note on Cardiac Index. Discuss the regulation of cardiac output. Write a note on cardiac reserve.
SHORT ESSAY Define cardiac.