Terminology[ edit ] In South Koreathe period is usually described as the "Japanese forced occupation" Hangul:
Hanyang now Seoul was made the capital. The Confucian ethical system was officially adopted and replaced Buddhism, which had become corrupt. Many Confucian institutions of learning were set up. Members of the yangban devoted themselves to the study of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy and, through civil service examinations, held public offices, their sole profession.
Early yangban society flourished intellectually and culturally, especially during the reign of Sejong the Great, the fourth monarch. With the technique of movable-type printingdeveloped in Korea inmany publications were produced in such fields as medicine, astronomy, geography, history, and agriculture.
In the Korean phonetic alphabet, Hangul Korean: Camille Harang In the reign of Sejo, the seventh monarch, a powerful centralized and yangban-oriented government structure emerged.
The country was divided into eight administrative provinces, and all officials were appointed by the central government. Laws were codified, and the highest administrative body was the State Council. Late in the 15th century Korean scholars made original contributions to the theoretical refinement of Confucianism.
In the midth century many of these scholars were recruited into government service. Idealistic in orientation, they criticized the bureaucratic establishment and recommended drastic measures for the realization of Confucian ideals.
Foreign invasions In Toyotomi Hideyoshithe Japanese military leader who had just reunified Japan, sent a large force to Korea in an alleged attempt to invade China. The Korean land forces suffered a series of defeats, but Korean naval forces, led by Adm. Yi Sun-shinsecured full control of the sea.
The national crisis brought people of almost all ranks, including Buddhist monks, to volunteer in fighting the Japanese. Ming China also dispatched troops to aid Korea. After one year the Japanese were forced to retreat, although another invasion followed in The war left most of Korea in ruins.
Palaces, public buildings, and private homes were burned, and many cultural treasures were lost or destroyed. Yi Sun-shinYi Sun-shin, statue in Seoul. Ming and Korean punitive attacks on Manchu strongholds in were beaten back, and in the Manchu overran northern Korea.
In the Manchu captured Seoul and wrested an unconditional surrender from the king.
The Manchu then overthrew the Ming and in established the Qing dynasty ; the tribute that Korea had paid to the Ming was switched to the Qing. Silhak and popular culture A series of significant changes in Korea began in the midth century and made a great impact on virtually every sector of Korean society in the 18th century.
In agriculture, rice transplantation became popular, and irrigation systems were improved. Advances in farming resulted in dramatic increases in agricultural production and raised the standard of living for peasants.
With the cultivation of such special crops as tobacco and ginseng, commerce and trade developed apace.
The government started minting coins and collecting farm rent in cash. Markets were held in many places across the country. In the realm of scholarship, attention shifted from speculative theorizing to matters of practical relevance—the needs of society and state.
They fell into four major groups. One group advocated comprehensive administrative reform, calling upon the government to rationalize the systems of civil service examination, education, taxation, and land administration.
Another group stressed the need to foster commerce, industry, and technology. A third conducted critical examinations of the Confucian classics, while the fourth focused on the study of Korean history, geography, and language.
Comparable new trends appeared in arts and letters. Popular literary and artistic works came into fashion—a marked change from the tradition of catering exclusively to the upper class. The new works not only were written in the easy-to-read Hangul but also gave frank expression to popular discontent.Korea Under Japaneses Rule Essay “The Japanese Rule of Korea ” In the year of , Japan used a clever way to annex Korea through King Go Jong's son marrying a Japanese woman and was given a Japanese identity.
The government general of Korea, set up to rule colonial Korea, was an unusual entity. Its head (governor general) was a Japanese general or admiral under the direct control of the Japanese. Taiwan was under Japanese rule between and in which the island of Taiwan (including the Penghu Islands) was a dependency of the Empire of Japan, after Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan and ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
Korea Under Japanese Colonial Rule. Japanese gendarmes in Korea, (Source: Topical Press Agency/Getty Images) Japan ruled Korea as a colony from to the end of the World War II, with the period from to being the harshest and most repressive.
Farmers were required to surrender most, if not all, of their rice crops for. Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in and ended at the conclusion of World War II in Japanese rule over Korea was the outcome of a process that began with the Japan–Korea Treaty of , whereby a complex coalition of the Meiji government, Capital: Keijō (Gyeongseong).
THE JAPANESE COLONIAL PERIOD - Japanese Troops marching through the West Gate in Japanese rule in Korea only lasted 35 years yet left an indelible legacy.