References and Further Reading 1. Introduction 'Ethical criticism' refers to the inclusion of an ethical component in the interpretation and evaluation of art.
Until aroundHegel devoted himself to developing his ideas on religious and social themes, and seemed to have envisaged a future for himself as a type of modernising and reforming educator, in the image of figures of the German Enlightenment such as Lessing and Schiller.
In the s the University of Jena had become a center for the development of critical philosophy due to the presence of K.
Reinhold — and then Fichte, who taught there from until his dismissal on the grounds of atheism at the end of the decade. By that time, Schelling, who had first been attracted to Jena by the presence of Fichte, had become an established figure at the university. By late Hegel had completed his first major work, the Phenomenology of Spirit publishedwhich showed a divergence from his earlier, seemingly more Schellingian, approach.
Now without a university appointment he worked for a short time, apparently very successfully, as an editor of a newspaper in Bamberg, and then from — as the headmaster and philosophy teacher at a gymnasium high school in Nuremberg. During his time at Nuremberg he married and started a family, and wrote and published his Science of Logic.
In he managed to return to his university career by being appointed to a chair in philosophy at the University of Heidelberg, but shortly after, inhe was offered and took up the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin, the most prestigious position in the German philosophical world.
Inwhile in Heidelberg he published the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences, a systematic work in which an abbreviated version of the earlier Science of Logic the Encyclopaedia Logic or Lesser Logic was followed by the application of its principles to the philosophy of nature and the philosophy of spirit.
In in Berlin Hegel published his major work in political philosophy, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, based on lectures given at Heidelberg but ultimately grounded in the section of the Encyclopaedia Philosophy of Spirit dealing with objective spirit. During the following ten years up to his death in Hegel enjoyed celebrity at Berlin, and published subsequent versions of the Encyclopaedia.
After his death versions of his lectures on philosophy of history, philosophy of religion, aesthetics, and the history of philosophy were published. Hegel himself had been a supporter of progressive but non-revolutionary politics, but his followers divided into factions broadly groupable as those of the left, right and centre Toews ; from the left, Karl Marx was to develop his own purported scientific approach to society and history which appropriated many Hegelian ideas into a materialistic outlook.
Later, especially in reaction to orthodox Soviet versions of Marxism, many so-called Western Marxists re-incorporated further Hegelian elements back into their forms of Marxist philosophy.
In academic philosophy, Hegelian idealism had seemed to collapse dramatically after and the failure of the revolutionary movements of that year, but underwent a revival in both Great Britain and the United States in the last decades of the nineteenth century.
In Britain, where philosophers such as T. However, a later generation of French philosophers coming to prominence in the s tended to react against Hegel in ways analogous to those in which early analytic philosophers had reacted against the Hegel who had influenced their predecessors.
In the s the German philosopher Klaus Hartmann developed what was termed a non-metaphysical interpretation of Hegel which, together with the work of Dieter Henrich and others, played an important role in the revival of interest in Hegel in academic philosophy in the second half of the century.
By the close of the twentieth century, even within core logico-metaphysical areas of analytic philosophy, a number of individuals such as Robert Brandom and John McDowell had started to take Hegel seriously as a significant modern philosopher, although generally within analytic circles a favorable reassessment of Hegel has still a long way to go.
The contents of philosophical knowledge, we might suspect, will come from the historically changing contents of its cultural context. On the other, there is the hint of such contents being raised to some higher level, presumably higher than other levels of cognitive functioning such as those based in everyday perceptual experience, for example, or those characteristic of other areas of culture such as art and religion.
This higher level takes the form of conceptually articulated thought, a type of cognition commonly taken as capable of having purportedly eternal contents think of Plato and Frege, for example.
In line with such a conception, Hegel sometimes referred to the task of philosophy as that of recognising the concept Der Begriff in the mere representations Vorstellungen of everyday life. In contrast, the British Hegelian movement at the end of the nineteenth century tended to ignore the Phenomenology and the more historicist dimensions of his thought, and found in Hegel a systematic metaphysician whose Logic provided the basis for a definitive philosophical ontology.
This latter traditional metaphysical view of Hegel dominated Hegel reception for most of the twentieth century, but from the s came to be challenged by scholars who offered an alternative non-metaphysical, post-Kantian view.
But in turn, this post-Kantian reading has been challenged by a revised metaphysical view, critical of the purported over-assimilation of Hegel to Kant by the post-Kantians.
Thus, for example, Leibniz had contrasted Plato as an idealist with Epicurus as a materialist. The opposition to materialism here, together with the fact that in the English-speaking world the Irish philosopher and clergyman George Berkeley — is often taken as a prototypical idealist, has given rise to the assumption that idealism is necessarily an immaterialist doctrine.
This assumption, however, is mistaken. The type of picture found in Berkeley was only to be found in certain late antique Platonists and, especially, early Christian Platonists like Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo.
It thus had features closer to the more pantheistic picture of divine thought found in Spinoza, for example, for whom matter and mind were attributes of the one substance. The materialists to which he was opposed mechanistic corpuscularists of his time conceived of unformed matter as a type of self-subsistent substance, and it seems to have been that conception to which he was opposed, at least in some periods of his work, not the reality of matter per se.
In this picture, Hegel is seen as offering a metaphysico-religious view of God qua Absolute Spirit, as the ultimate reality that we can come to know through pure thought processes alone.
Indeed, Hegel often seems to invoke imagery consistent with the types of neo-Platonic conceptions of the universe that had been common within Christian mysticism, especially in the German states, in the early modern period.
Thus, in our consciousness of God, we somehow serve to realize his own self-consciousness, and, thereby, his own perfection. In English-language interpretations, such a picture is effectively found in the work of Charles Taylor and Michael Rosenfor example.
With its dark mystical roots, and its overtly religious content, it is hardly surprising that the philosophy of Hegel so understood has rarely been regarded as a live option within the largely secular and scientific conceptions of philosophy that have been dominant in the twentieth century.
To critics, such as Karl Popper in his popular post-war The Open Society and its EnemiesHegel had not only advocated a disastrous political conception of the state and the relation of its citizens to it, a conception prefiguring twentieth-century totalitarianism, but he had also tried to underpin such advocacy with dubious theo-logico-metaphysical speculations.
With his idea of the development of spirit in history, Hegel is seen as literalising a way of talking about different cultures in terms of their spirits, of constructing a developmental sequence of epochs typical of nineteenth-century ideas of linear historical progress, and then enveloping this story of human progress in terms of one about the developing self-conscious of the cosmos-God itself.
The pantheistic legacy inherited by Hegel meant that he had no problem in considering an objective outer world beyond any particular subjective mind.The Dork of Cork August 11, at pm.
What good is a better fake? it will merely fool more people more of the time. Me – I hark back to Junior and his child like honesty on occasion.
In this course we will read three genres in American literature: short stories, poems, and a novel.
Edgar Allan Poe, Kate Chopin, Eudora Welty, and Kurt Vonnegut will introduce us to Gothic Romanticism, turn of the (nineteenth) century feminism, racial discrimination during the segregation era, and a dystopian view on equality.
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The Seven Basic Plots: Why We Tell Stories is a book by Christopher Booker containing a Jungian-influenced analysis of stories and their psychological tranceformingnlp.com had worked on . Ethical Criticism of Art. Traditionally, there were two opposing philosophical positions taken with respect to the legitimacy of the ethical evaluation of art: ‘moralism’ and ‘autonomism’, where moralism is the view that the aesthetic value of art should be determined by, or reduced to, its moral value, while autonomism holds that it is inappropriate to apply moral categories to art.
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