You have asked me, Lucilius, why, if a Providence rules the world, it still happens that many evils befall good men. This would be more fittingly answered in a coherent work designed to prove that a Providence does preside over the universe, and that God concerns himself with us. But since it is your wish that a part be severed from the whole, and that I refute a single objection while the main question is left untouched, I shall do so; the task is not difficult, - I shall be pleading the cause of the gods. Even the phenomena which seem irregular and undetermined - I mean showers and clouds, the stroke of crashing thunderbolts and the fires that belch from the riven peaks of mountains, tremors of the quaking ground, and the other disturbances which the turbulent element in nature sets in motion about the earth, these, no matter how suddenly they occur, do not happen without a reason; nay, they also are the result of special eauses, and so, in like manner, are those things which seem miraculous by reason of the incongruous situations in which they are beheld, such as warm waters in the midst of the sea- waves,and the expanses of new islands that spring up in the wide ocean.
Axes and Swords for Beheading Beheading was a form of execution rather than a form of torture, but it could form part of a programme of torture. For example beheading was a part of the process of drawing, hanging, and quartering.
Decapitation has been used as a form Best practice cases in branding essay capital punishment for millennia. The terms "capital offence", "capital crime", "capital punishment," derive from the word caput, Latin for "head", referring to the punishment for serious offences involving the forfeiture of the head.
Decapitation by sword or axe was considered the "honourable" way to die for a noble, who, being a warrior, could often expect to die by the sword in any event. In England it was considered a privilege of noblemen and noblewomen to be beheaded.
Others suffered a dishonourable death death on the gallows or through burning at the stake. In medieval England the penalty for treason by men was to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. The penalty for women traitors was to be burned at the stake.
In practice sentences of nobles were almost always commuted to beheading. In legends of Christian martyrdom the fictitious saints withstood all attempts to execute them, until the wicked heathens finally beheaded them.
If the headsman's axe or sword was sharp and his aim true, decapitation was quick and presumed to be a painless form of death.
If the instrument was blunt or the executioner clumsy, multiple strokes might be required. The person to be executed was therefore advised to give a gold coin to the headsman to ensure that he did his job with care.
Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury, required ten strokes before being dispatched by a fatal blow. To ensure that the blow would be fatal, executioners' swords were usually blade-heavy two-handed swords.
If an axe was used, it almost invariably would be wielded with both hands. In England a special form of axe was used for beheadings, with the blade's edge extending downwards from the tip of the shaft. Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, first cousins and the second and fifth wives of King Henry VIII were both condemned to be burnt alive for adultery, but on Henry's orders they were both beheaded.
Lady Jane Grey was also condemned to burn as a traitoress but again the sentence was commuted to beheading by Mary I. The Vatican City abolished its capital punishment statute in Barrel Pillory, or Spanish Mantle A barrel is fitted over the entire body, with the head sticking out from a hole in the top.
The person is kept locked in the barrel, forcing him to kneel in his own filth, and in some cases suffer extremes of hot or cold. For a short time this was merely unpleasant, but prolonged confinement could cause death through hunger or thirst, or scaphism - allowing or encouraging insects to breed on and feed on the victim's flesh.
The defenceless individual's faeces accumulated within the container, attracting ever more insects, which would eat and breed within his or her exposed and often gangrenous flesh. Feeding the victim would often be allowed each day in some cases to prolong the torture, so that dehydration or starvation did not provide him or her with the release of death.
Delirium would typically set in after a few days. Death, when it eventually occurred, was probably due to a combination of dehydration, starvation and septic shock. It was used for a range of other misdemeanours, often represented pictorially on the exterior of the barrel.The Branding Journal is an independent online journal covering news and case studies about branding strategies worldwide.
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The world constantly changes and disparities, however, some top brands seem to keep their leadership position in their industry to this day. Strong brands are amazingly durable and have the ultimate ability to overcome many challenges. Either does Nike.
Since its creation in in the USA, the. The Psychology of Security. I just posted a long essay (pdf available here) on my website, exploring how psychology can help explain the difference between the feeling of security and the reality of security..
We make security trade-offs, large and small, every day.
We make them when we decide to lock our doors in the morning, when we choose our driving route, and when we decide whether we're.