United States History I.
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History of the automobile Unlike many other major inventions, the original idea of the automobile cannot be attributed to a single individual.
Leonardo da Vinci considered the idea of a self-propelled vehicle in the 15th century. In a Swiss clergyman, J. Genevois, suggested mounting small windmills on a cartlike vehicle, their power to be used to wind springs that would move the road wheel.
Two-masted wind carriages were running in the Netherlands inand a speed of 20 miles 30 km per hour with a load of 28 passengers was claimed for at least one of them. Other inventors considered the possibilities of clockwork. Probably in a carriage propelled by a large clockwork engine was demonstrated in Paris by the versatile inventor Jacques de Vaucanson.
The air engine is thought to have originated with a 17th-century German physicist, Otto von Guericke. Guericke invented an air pump and was probably the first to make metal pistons, cylinders, and connecting rods, the basic components of the reciprocating engine.
In the 17th century a Dutch inventor, Christiaan Huygensproduced an engine that worked by air pressure developed by explosion of a powder charge.
Denis Papin of France built a model engine on the vacuum principle, using the condensation of steam to produce the vacuum. An air engine was patented in England inand a grid of compressor stations was proposed to service vehicles.
|THE BIRTH OF THE BESSEMER PROCESS||Antique car The American George B. Selden filed for a patent on 8 May|
An air-powered vehicle is said to have been produced in Steam propulsion was proposed as early as the 16th century, and in Ferdinand Verbiesta Belgian Jesuit missionary to China, made a model steam carriage based on a principle suggestive of the modern turbine.
In the 18th century a French scientist, Philippe Lebonpatented a coal-gas engine and made the first suggestion of electrical ignition. In Paris, Isaac de Rivas made a gas-powered vehicle in ; his engine used hydrogen gas as fuel, the valves and ignition were operated by hand, and the timing problem appears to have been difficult.
The age of steam Most historians agree that Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot of France was the constructor of the first true automobile. Cugnot was an artillery officer, and the more or less steam-tight pistons of his engine were made possible by the invention of a drill that accurately machined cannon bores.
Because of the heavy weight of the steam chamber in the front, it had a tendency to tip over when not hauling cannons, which was what it was designed to do. Steam buses were running in Paris about Oliver Evans of Philadelphia ran an amphibious steam dredge through the streets of that city in Less well-known were Nathan Read of Salem, Massachusetts, and Apollos Kinsley of Hartford, Connecticut, both of whom ran steam vehicles during the period — In March the magazine Scientific American described tests of a vehicle that weighed only pounds about kg and achieved a speed of 20 miles 30 km per hour.
Another American, Frank Curtis of Newburyport, Massachusetts, is remembered for building a personal steam carriage to the order of a Boston man who failed to meet the payment schedule, whereupon Curtis made the first recorded repossession of a motor vehicle.
English inventors were active, and by the s the manufacture and use of steam road carriages was flourishing.tranceformingnlp.com The Romance of Steel A History of the Steel Industry by Herbert Newton Casson THE BIRTH OF THE BESSEMER PROCESS.
On that bleak November day when Andrew Carnegie was born in a Scottish cottage, the iron and steel makers of America had no more thought of millions than of castles in Spain.
Steel sold for twenty-five cents a pound. The United States is home to some of the top car brands in the world. Sometimes referred to as “The Big Three,” these companies are renowned for their long history of manufacturing the cars used by countless people in the country.
Click here for the Toyota Passenger Car Chronology Toyota also expanded its vehicle manufacturing in the United States and created 2, American jobs by beginning production of the Corolla at the newly opened Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Mississippi plant.
For decades, through the boom and bust years of the 20th century, the American automotive industry had an immense impact on the domestic economy. The number of new cars sold annually was a. It was not until the 19th century that scientific -- and entrepreneurial -- innovation began to change the world of oil.
Within 11 of years of the first . page2. page3.
page4. page5. page6. page7. page8. page9. Message Board. Weekly Poll: The United States Of America, Part Five. This is the story of how the American Republic developed from colonial beginnings in the 16th century, when the first European explorers arrived, until modern times.